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Petroleum reservoir engineering, carbon capture & storage

Keywords: Reservoir Engineering, Petrophysics, Porous Media, Reservoir Fluids, Rock Mechanics
Fig. 1. Drilling fluids testing facilities, Petroleum Engineering Lab (picture by P. Macini).
Fig. 2. Permeability measurements, Petroleum Engineering Lab (picture by P. Macini).
Fig. 3. Soxhlet extractor, Petroleum Engineering Lab (picture by P. Macini).

The research activity of the group concerns the study, the development and the use of numerical codes for the simulation of hydrocarbons and other underground fluids reservoirs, including the study and the modelling of pollutant transport in ground water.

Among other experimental research in the field of reservoir engineering, petrophysics and rock mechanics are the following:

- Non-Darcy flow in porous media, observed in gas wells when the fluids converging to the wellbore attains the velocity peculiar of turbulent flow. In that case the use of Darcy law would lead to inaccurate production performances evaluation.
- Measurement of rock compressibility at great depth, at confining pressure up to 150 MPa. The experimental apparatus has been designed to perform both static and dynamic measurements.
- EOR and wettability reversal studies, including lab studies on reservoir rock and fluid properties (interfacial tension, wettability, etc.). Flooding efficiency curves are obtained and used as a criterion to evaluate the performance of wettability reversal, which seems to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs, where oil cannot be economically produced.
- CCS application (reservoir assessment, site evaluation, injection modeling). The widespread application of CCS depends on technical maturity, costs, overall potential, diffusion and transfer of the technology to developing countries and their capacity to apply the technology, regulatory aspects, environmental issues and possible problems of public perception and acceptability.
- Hydraulic conductivity of rocks and soils, featuring experimental studies on the physico-chemical interactions occurring between saturating fluids and permeability of natural porous media. These studies are aimed to aid the design of waste disposal sites (with potential release of bottom liquids), including safety criteria management. Other theoretical and lab studies concern the relationships between petro-physical properties of porous media, with particular reference to the effects of grain size distribution and porosity on hydraulic con-ductivity of soils or loose formations.

Main publications

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Colucci, F., Moia, F., Guandalini, R., Savoca, D., CO2 Geological Storage: a study for a Pilot Plant in Lombardia Region (Italy), International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2016, in press.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Viola, R., Laboratory measurements of non-Darcy flow coefficients in natural and artificial unconsolidated porous media, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 77 (2011) 365–374. Elsevier.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Bitelli, G., Vituari, L., Bonsignore, F., Chahoud, A., Villani, B., Severi, P., Recent Extensometric Data for the Monitoring of Subsidence in Bologna (Italy), Proc. 8th Int. Symp. on Land Subsidence (EISOLS 2010), Que-retaro, Mexico, Oct. 18-22, 2010.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Compaction of water/gas bearing formations: experiences in Northern Italy, Proc. IAH Intl. Symp. “Aquifer System Manage-ment”, Dijon, May 30 – June 1, 2006.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Salomoni, V., Schrefler, B., Casing influence while measuring in situ reser-voir compaction. Journ. of Petroleum. Science & Engineering, 50, 2006, 40-54.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Salomoni, V., Schrefler, B., Effects of drilling-induced disturbance to estimate reservoir compaction through radioactive marker technique. Proc. 7th Int. Symp. On Land Subsid¬ence (SISOLS 2005), Shanghai, R.P. China, Oct. 23-28, 2005.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Measuring reservoir com-paction through radioactive marker technique, Jour. of Energy Resources Technology, 124, 2002, 269-275.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Viola, R., Aquifer protection: a combined study of microstructure and transport properties in clay-sand mixtures, IAH-SP Vol. 10, London, 2007, 435-444 (ISBN 978-0-415-44355-5, Chery, L. & de Marsily, G., Eds.).

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Probing the effects on Hydraulic conductivity of grain size distribution and porosity of soils, Proc. 9th Congr. Int. Ass. of Eng. Geol., ISBN No. 0-620-28559-1, Durban, Sept. 16-20, 2002, 1566-1575.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Viola, R., Non-Darcy Flow: Laboratory Measurements in Unconsolidated Porous Media, Paper SPE 113772, SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conf. & Exhib., Rome, Italy, 9-12 Jun. 2008.

Brighenti, G., Macini, P., Non-Darcy two-phase flow in fractured rocks, IAH-SP Series, Vol. 9, “Groundwater in Fractured Rocks”, London, 2007, 189-202 (ISBN 978-0-415-41442-5, Krasny J. & Sharp J.M. Eds.).

Bortolotti, V., Fantazzini, P., Gombia, M., Macini, P., Mesini, E., Srisuriyachai, F., Combined Spatially Resolved and Non-resolved 1H-NMR Relaxation Analysis to Assess and Monitor Wettability Reversal in Carbonate Rocks, Paper IPTC 13443, International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 7–9 December 2009.

Bortolotti, V., Macini, P., Srisuriyachai F., Laboratory Evaluation of Alkali and Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding Combined with Intermittent Flow in Carbonatic Rocks, Paper SPE 122499, SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conf. and Exhib., Jakarta, Indonesia, 4-6 Aug. 2009.

Bortolotti, V., Macini, P., Srisuriyachai F., Wettability Index of Carbonatic Reservoirs and EOR: Laboratory Study to Optimize Alkali and Surfactant Flooding, Paper SPE 131043, CPS/SPE International Oil & Gas Conf. and Exhib. in China., Beijing, 8-10 June 2010.

Bortolotti, V., Fantazzini, P., Gombia, M., Macini, P., Mesini E., Srisuriyachai, F., Probing Wettability Reversal in carbonatic rocks by Resolved and Non-resolved 1H-NMR Relaxation Analysis, Paper SPE 133937, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhib., Florence, Italy, 19-22 Sept. 2010.

Macini, P., Mesini, E., Moia, F., Guandalini, R., Savoca, D., Assessing the Underground CO2 Storage Potential in a Highly Populated and Industrialized Area: The Case of Lombardia Region (Italy), Paper SPE 133941, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhib., Florence, Italy, 19-22 Sept. 2010. (ISBN 978-1-55563-300-4)

Cau, G., Girardi, G., Macini, P., Mesini, E., Persoglia, S., The Italian Contribution to the European Initiative for the Capture, Transport, and Storage of CO2, Paper SPE 134083, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhib, Florence, Italy, 19-22 Sept. 2010. (ISBN 978-1-55563-300-4)