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Water and energy recovery in water distribution systems

Keywords: energy efficiency, design, optimization, water scarcity, water supply systems, miny-hydro
Fig. 1. Energy self-sufficiency of water distribution systems by installation of turbine/PAT (Authors: Bolognesi A., Bragalli C.)
Fig. 2. Smart technologies for Automatic Meter Reading. (Authors: Bragalli C.)

The contribution in the enhancement of leakage control methods in water distribution systems is closely related to the need for an integrated water and energy resource management. Both consolidated and emerging technologies and management practices have been analysed in order to improve efficiency in the use of water and energy resources. In fact, leakage can modify the operational conditions of the network and of pumps, causing relevant effects on energy efficiency. The understanding of leakage-energy nexus shows non-trivial relationships and the definition of methodologies and indicator to evaluate the actual level of water demand, leakage and energy consumed is a key issue either under a management or an environmental perspective. Optimization process has been used to determine the configurations representing the optimal scenarios in terms of watergy efficiency, i.e.: the satisfaction of water demand with the lowest possible energy-demanding networks and, among the low energy networks, those showing the highest energy-efficiency. The contribution on the enhancement of leakage control methods in water distribution systems derives from a number of research projects carried out in strictly collaboration with water utilities operating particularly in Emilia Romagna and Marche regions. Recently some real applications of automatic meter readings (Forlì, HERA network; Fano, ASET network; Reggio Emilia, ENIA network) have been considered. Remote monitoring systems are able to read users’ water meters and it is possible to use this feature for a dynamic water balance, and also it is an excellent starting point for a water losses dynamic control approach that links the benefits of active leakage control and the ones of passive leakage control. In conjunction with the previous mentioned aspects, the research activity is regarded the increasing of the energy self-sufficiency of water distribution systems by means the installation of turbine/PAT, assuming that the installations of Micro–Hydro and Mini–Hydro could be seen as a point of convergence between the pressure control (in order to reduce the losses of water) and the exploitation of a renewable energy source.

Main publications

Artina S., Naldi G., Marchi A., Bragalli C., Lenzi C., Liserra T. (2008). Dal controllo della pressione al recupero energetico nei sistemi di distribuzione idrica. IDRA08, p.1-8, PERUGIA: Morlacchi Editore, ISBN:978-88-6074-220-9.

Artina S., Bragalli C., Lenzi C., Liserra T., Marchi A., Benini A. (2010), Relazione sperimentale tra perdite ed energia in reti idriche alimentate da pompe a giri variabili, Supplemento alla rivista bimestrale dell'Associazione Idrotecnica Italiana L'ACQUA 2/2010.

Artina, A. Bolognesi, C. Bragalli, D. Galeri, M. Maglionico (2012). Implicazioni gestionali dell’applicazione estesa della telelettura ai contatori. L'ACQUA, vol.4, p.85-94, ISSN:1125-1255.

Bolognesi A., Bragalli C., Lenzi C., Artina S. (2014). Energy efficiency optimization in water distribution systems. PROCEDIA ENGINEERING CCWI 2013 Perugia (Italy), vol.20, p.181- 190.

Bragalli C., Sacchi S. (2002). Burst frequency and leakage related to pressure control in water distribution network. Leakage Management – IWA Conference, Cyprus 20 – 22 November 2002. IWA Specialised Conference, Leakage Management, Cyprus, November 2002, Conference Proceedings, ISBN 9963875904.

Conte G., Bolognesi A., Bragalli C., Branchini S., Carli A.D., Lenzi C., Masi F., Massarutto A., Pollastri M., Principi I. (2012). Innovative Urban Water Management as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: Results from the Implementation of the Project “Water Against Climate Change (WATACLIC)”. WATER, ISSN:2073-4441, vol.4, p.1025-1038.

Frijns J., Marchet E. C., Carriço N., Covas D., Monteiro A. J., Ramos H. M., Bolognesi A., Bragalli C., Baki S., Makropoulos C. (2015). Mangement tools for hydro energy interventions in water supply systems. WATER PRACTICE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN:1751 231X, vol. 10 (4), p.214-228.

Lenzi C., Bragalli C., Bolognesi A., Artina S. (2013). From energy balance to energy efficiency indicators including water losses. WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: WATER SUPPLY, ISSN: 1606-9749, vol.13 (4), p.889-895.

Liserra T., Artina S., C. Bragalli, C. Anzalone, G. Leoni, D. Giunchi. (2006). Approccio pre-attivo per il controllo delle perdite idriche con monitoraggio in telelettura. XXX Convegno di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche. XXX Convegno di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche. ROMA. 10-15 Settembre 2006. (vol. 1). ISBN: 88-87242-81-X.

Liserra T., Artina S., Bragalli C., Lenzi C. (2009). Water loss dynamic control by Automatic Meter Readings in water distribution network. Integrating Water Systems, Proc. 10th International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry (CCWI), Sheffield, ISBN 13-978-0-415- 54851-9 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.

Naldi G., Artina S., Bragalli C., Liserra T., Marchi A. (2010). Experimental investigation of characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps working as turbines. In: Integrating Water Systems. p. 571-576, LONDON:CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN: 9780415548519, Sheffield (UK).

Research projects

LIFE08/INF/IT/000308 "WATACLIC - WATER AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE. Sustainable water management in urban areas", approvato dalla CE (2010 - 2012).

FP7-ENV-2010 TRUST - Transactions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow.

INTERREG IV C "WATER CoRe WATER SCARCITY AND DROUGHTS - COORDINATED ACTIVITIES IN EUROPEAN REGIONS" Priority 2: Environment and Risk Prevention, Sub-Theme: Water Management, approvato dalla CE (2010 - 2013).