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Water sensitive urban design

Keywords: green roofs, retention, permeable pavements, rainwater harvesting, heat recovery
Fig. 1a. Experimental green roof located above a laboratory at the Engineering Campus of the University of Bologna (Cipolla S. and Maglionico M.)
Fig.1b E.g. of experimental data collected: rainfall intensity, flow rate from the green roof and from the impervious roof (Cipolla S., Maglionico M.)
Fig. 2a. Trend of temperature and flow in the Bologna sewer system for heat recovery analysis (Authors: Cipolla S. and Maglionico M.).
Fig. 2b. Trend of temperature and flow in the Bologna sewer system for heat recovery analysis (Authors: Cipolla S. and Maglionico M.).

Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) is a design approach which integrates the urban water cycle, including stormwater, wastewater and water supply management, into urban design in order to minimise the environmental impact. The main objective of WSUD is to combine the demands of sustainable water management with the demands of urban planning, and thus bringing the urban water cycle closer to a natural one. The research activity, carried out on this topic, could be summarized in: hydrologic monitoring and modelling of green infrastructures (green roofs and permeable pavements); analysis of the water consumption for different type of users, and opportunity of rainwater and greywater harvesting; heat recovery from urban wastewater.

Green infrastructures such as green roofs and permeable pavements, are considered an appealing solution as they can manage rainfall close to where it falls, and reduce the need for offsite conveyance. Green roofs are increasingly addressed and studied as elements that help cities to restore the water balance, with the additional benefits of mitigating the effects of climate change and of the heat island, increasing biodiversity, and enriching architecture and life quality. A full-scale green roof, located above a laboratory of the Engineering Campus of the University of Bologna has been monitored to collect hydrological data and then to calibrate numerical models.

Current work also includes the evaluation of the amount of energy that can be obtained from wastewater. In fact, wastewater deriving from residential buildings is characterized by temperature which is higher than those of clean water, this happens because inside buildings 60% of water is heated. Results of a monitoring period in the sewer of Bologna have showed the variability of wastewater flow rate and temperature and their correlation. These studies can be useful to map the potential thermal energy present on sewage systems and to design a heat recovery system.

In terms of water demand another research activity is based on greywater and rainwater recovery in buildings. In particular, the correct design of the storage systems is a key aspect from the economic feasibility point of view.

Main publications

Cipolla, S.S., Maglionico, M., Stojkov, I. (2016). A long-term hydrological modelling of an extensive green roof by means of SWMM. Ecological Engineering, 95, 876-887.

Cipolla, S.S., Maglionico, M., Stojkov, I. (2016). Experimental Infiltration Tests on Existing Permeable Pavement Surfaces. Clean - Soil, Air, Water, 44 (1), 89-95.

Maglionico, M., Stojkov, I. (2015). Water consumption in a public swimming pool. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 15 (6), 1304-1311.

Cipolla, S.S., Maglionico, M. (2014). Heat recovery from urban wastewater: Analysis of the variability of flow rate and temperature. Energy and Buildings, 69, 122-130.

Cipolla, S.S., Maglionico, M. (2014). Heat recovery from urban wastewater: Analysis of the variability of flow rate and temperature in the sewer of Bologna, Italy. Energy Procedia, 45, 288-297.

Maglionico, M., Stojkov, I., Cipolla, S. S., Bonoli, A., Conte, A. (2014). Green roofs for sustainable water management in urban areas. 13th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Sarawak, Malaysia; 7-12 September 2014.

Farina, M., Maglionico, M., Pollastri, M., Stojkov, I. (2013). Water consumption in public schools for the city of Bologna, Italy. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (2), 257- 264.

Cipolla, S.S., Maglionico, M. (2013). Recupero di energia termica dalle acque reflue. Focus su acque e ambiente urbano. IX Rapporto ISPRA. 233-238.

Cipolla, S.S., Di Domenico S., Maglionico, M. (2013). Recupero di energia termica dalle acque reflue. Servizi a Rete, 2, 29-34.

Bonoli, A., Conte, A., Maglionico, M., Stojkov, I. (2013). Green roofs for sustainable water management in urban areas. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 12 (S11), 153-156.

Liserra T., M. Maglionico, V. Ciriello, V. Di Federico (2013). Uncertainty in Design and Management of Sewer Systems. Irrigat. Drainage Sys. Eng. 2 (105), 2.

Maglionico, M., Cipolla, S., Stojkov, I., Tavernelli, M. (2012). Variations and trend in water distribution networks breaks. 14th Water Distribution Systems Analysis Conference, WDSA 2012, 2, 748-757.

Maglionico, M. (2011). Analisi delle rotture nelle tubazioni delle reti acquedottistiche. ACQUA E CITTÀ 2011 - 4° Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana - Venezia, 21 - 24 Giugno 2011.

Gambi, G., Maglionico, M., Tondelli, S. (2011). Water management in local development plans: The case of the old fruit and vegetable market in Bologna. Procedia Engineering, 21, 1110-1117.

Giovanelli, M., Maglionico, M. (2008). Identification of the optimal level of service for sewer networks by means of expert procedure. 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 31 August – 5 September 2008.

Research projects

LIFE15 ENV/IT7000423 AGROWETLANDS II Smart water and soil salinity management in Agro-wetlands (2016-2020).

GST4Water - Green-smart technology for the sustainable use of water resources in buildings and in urban areas. Project funded under the POR-FESR Emilia-Romagna Region (2016- 2018).

Research and Consulting Contract with Gecosistema s.r.l. (2015). MANGROWE - MAppiNg Green Roof Opportunities for Water and Energy efficiency. Project funded by Province of Bolzano. Scientific Coordinator: Marco Maglionico.

Research and Consulting Contract with Province of Rimini (2011), Guideline for the stormwater management in urban areas and for the plan for the CSOs management in the coastal area of the province of Rimini. Scientific Coordinator: Marco Maglionico.